Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor activation of p21WAF1 involves changes in promoter-associated proteins, including HDAC1.. C-Y Gui; L Ngo; W S Xu; V M Richon; P A Marks (2004) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America display abstract
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACi) cause cancer cell growth arrest and/or apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. The HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is in phase I/II clinical trials showing significant anticancer activity. Despite wide distribution of HDACs in chromatin, SAHA alters the expression of few genes in transformed cells. p21(WAF1) is one of the most commonly induced. SAHA does not alter the expression of p27(KIPI), an actively transcribed gene, or globin, a silent gene, in ARP-1 cells. Here we studied SAHA-induced changes in the p21(WAF1) promoter of ARP-1 cells to better understand the mechanism of HDACi gene activation. Within 1 h, SAHA caused modifications in acetylation and methylation of core histones and increased DNase I sensitivity and restriction enzyme accessibility in the p21(WAF1) promoter. These changes did not occur in the p27(KIPI) or epsilon-globin gene-related histones. The HDACi caused a marked decrease in HDAC1 and Myc and an increase in RNA polymerase II in proteins bound to the p21(WAF1) promoter. Thus, this study identifies effects of SAHA on p21(WAF1)-associated proteins that explain, at least in part, the selective effect of HDACi in altering gene expression.