Drug-Target Interaction


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PubChem ID:39484
1 Methyl 4 Phenylpyridinium
39794-99-5 (chloride)
5-20-07-00550 (Beilstein Handbook Reference)
BRN 1618932
CCRIS 2187
Cyperquat [ANSI]
N-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion
Pyridinium, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-
Pyridinium, 1-methyl-4-phenyl- (9CI)


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Organism:Drosophila melanogaster
Fruit fly

Binding Affinities:

Ki: Kd:Ic 50:Ec50/Ic50:


Caspase-3 activation induced by inhibition of mitochondrial complex I is facilitated by glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and attenuated by lithium.. T D King; G N Bijur; R S Jope (2001) Brain research display abstract
The compound 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP) is a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, and is widely used in model systems to elicit neurochemical alterations that may be associated with Parkinson's disease. In the present study treatment of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with MPP resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent activation of the apoptosis-associated cysteine protease caspase-3, and caused morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis. To test if the activation state of the cell survival-promoting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway affects MPP-induced caspase-3 activation, PI3K was inhibited with LY294002, or activated with insulin-like growth factor-1. MPP-induced caspase-3 activation was increased by inhibition of PI3K, and decreased by stimulation of PI3K, indicative of anti-apoptotic signaling by the PI3K/Akt pathway. To test if glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta), a pro-apoptotic kinase that is inhibited by Akt, is involved in regulating MPP-induced apoptosis, overexpression of GSK3beta and lithium, a selective inhibitor of GSK3beta, were used to directly alter GSK3beta activity. MPP-induced caspase-3 activity was increased by overexpression of GSK3beta. Conversely, the GSK3beta inhibitor lithium attenuated MPP-induced caspase-3 activation. To test if these regulatory interactions applied to other mitochondrial complex I inhibitors, cells were treated with rotenone. Rotenone-induced activation of caspase-3 was enhanced by inhibition of PI3K or increased GSK3beta activity, and was attenuated by inhibiting GSK3beta with lithium. Overall, these results indicate that inhibition of GSK3beta provides protection against the toxic effects of agents, such as MPP and rotenone, that impair mitochondrial function.
Caspase inhibitors attenuate 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium toxicity in primary cultures of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.. James Bilsland; Sophie Roy; Steve Xanthoudakis; Donald W Nicholson; Yongxin Han; Erich Grimm; Franz Hefti; Sarah J Harper (2002) The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience display abstract
Parkinson's disease is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons. This neuronal loss is mimicked by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). MPP+ toxicity is mediated through inhibition of mitochondrial complex I, decreasing ATP production, and upregulation of oxygen radicals. There is evidence that the cell death induced by MPP+ is apoptotic and that inhibition of caspases may be neuroprotective. In primary cultures of rat mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons, MPP+ treatment decreased the number of surviving dopaminergic neurons in the cultures and the ability of the neurons to take up [3H]dopamine ([3H]DA). Caspase inhibition using the broad-spectrum inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk) spared MPP+-treated dopaminergic neurons and increased somatic size. There was a partial restoration of neurite length in zVAD-fmk-treated cultures, but little restoration of [3H]DA uptake. Peptide inhibitors of caspases 2, 3, and 9, but not of caspase 1, caused significant neuroprotection. Two novel caspase inhibitors were tested for neuroprotection, a broad spectrum inhibitor and a selective caspase 3 inhibitor; both inhibitors increased survival to >90% of control. No neuroprotection was observed with an inactive control compound. MPP+ treatment caused chromatin condensation in dopaminergic neurons and increased expression of activated caspase 3. Inhibition of caspases with either zVAD-fmk or a selective caspase 3 inhibitor decreased the number of apoptotic profiles, but not expression of the active caspase. We conclude that MPP+ toxicity in primary dopaminergic neurons involves activation of a pathway terminating in caspase 3 activation, but that other mechanisms may underlie the neurite loss.
Suppression of caspase-3-dependent proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta by small interfering RNA prevents MPP+-induced dopaminergic degeneration.. Yongjie Yang; Siddharth Kaul; Danhui Zhang; Vellareddy Anantharam; Anumantha G Kanthasamy (2004) Molecular and cellular neurosciences display abstract
The cellular mechanisms underlying the neurodegenerative process in Parkinson's disease are not well understood. Using RNA interference (RNAi), we demonstrate that caspase-3-dependent proteolytic activation of protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta) contributes to the degenerative process in dopaminergic neurons. The Parkinsonian toxin MPP(+) activated caspase-3 and proteolytically cleaved PKCdelta into catalytic and regulatory subunits, resulting in persistent kinase activation in mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cells. The caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK and the caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK effectively blocked MPP(+)-induced PKCdelta proteolytic activation. To characterize the functional role of PKCdelta activation in MPP(+)-induced dopaminergic cell death, RNAi-mediated gene knockdown was performed. Among four siRNAs designed against PKCdelta, two specifically suppressed PKCdelta expression. The application of siRNA abolished the MPP(+)-induced PKCdelta activation, DNA fragmentation, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neuronal loss. Together, these results suggest that proteolytic activation of PKCdelta may be a critical downstream event in the degenerative process of Parkinson's disease.