Selective inhibition of COX-2 is beneficial to mice infected intranasally with VSV.. Nannan Chen; Andrew Restivo; Carol Shoshkes Reiss (2002) Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators display abstract
Cyclooxygenase (COX) is the key enzyme for prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. PGs are mediators of many critical physiological and inflammatory responses. There are two isoforms, COX-1 and COX-2, both of which are constitutively expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). Studies have shown that COX-1 and COX-2 are involved in physiological and pathological conditions of the brain. However, little is known about the role(s) of COX in the host defense system against a viral infection in the CNS. In this report, we used Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV) induced acute encephalitis to distinguish between the contribution(s) of the two isoforms. COX-2 activity was inhibited with a COX-2 selective drug, celecoxib (Celebrex), and COX-1 was antagonized with SC560. We found that inhibition of COX-2 led to decreased viral titers, while COX-1 antagonism did not have the same effect at day 1 post infection. 5-lipooxygenase (5-LO) expression and neutrophil recruitment in the CNS were increased in celecoxib-inhibited mice. Furthermore, mice treated with celecoxib expressed more Nitric Oxide Synthase-1 (NOS-1), a crucial component of the innate immune system in the restriction of VSV propagation. The expression of type 1 cytokines, IFN-gamma and IL-12, were also increased in celecoxib-treated mice.