From the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib to a novel class of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 inhibitors.. Jiuxiang Zhu; Jui-Wen Huang; Ping-Hui Tseng; Ya-Ting Yang; Joseph Fowble; Chung-Wai Shiau; Yeng-Jeng Shaw; Samuel K Kulp; Ching-Shih Chen (2004) Cancer research display abstract
The blockade of Akt activation through the inhibition of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK-1) represents a major signaling mechanism whereby celecoxib mediates apoptosis. Celecoxib, however, is a weak PDK-1 inhibitor (IC(50), 48 microM), requiring at least 30 microM to exhibit discernable effects on the growth of tumor cells in vitro. Here, we report the structure-based optimization of celecoxib to develop PDK-1 inhibitors with greater potency in enzyme inhibition and growth inhibition. Kinetics of PDK-1 inhibition by celecoxib with respect to ATP suggest that celecoxib derivatives inhibit PDK-1 by competing with ATP for binding, a mechanism reminiscent to that of many kinase inhibitors. Structure-activity analysis together with molecular modeling was used to generate compounds that were tested for their potency in inhibiting PDK-1 kinase activity and in inducing apoptosis in PC-3 prostate cancer cells. Docking of potent compounds into the ATP-binding site of PDK-1 was performed for lead optimization, leading to two compounds, OSU-03012 and OSU-03013, with IC(50) values in PDK-1 inhibition and apoptosis induction in the low microM range. Exposure of PC-3 cells to these agents led to Akt dephosphorylation and inhibition of p70 S6 kinase activity. Moreover, overexpression of constitutively active forms of PDK-1 and Akt partially protected OSU-03012-induced apoptosis. Screening in a panel of 60 cell lines and more extensive testing in PC-3 cells indicated that the mean concentration for total growth inhibition was approximately 3 microM for both agents. Considering the conserved role of PDK-1/Akt signaling in promoting tumorigenesis, these celecoxib analogs are of translational relevance for cancer prevention and therapy.
Celecoxib modulates hypertrophic signalling and prevents load-induced cardiac dysfunction.. Claudius Jacobshagen; Meike Grüber; Nils Teucher; Albrecht G Schmidt; Bernhard W Unsöld; Karl Toischer; Van Phuc Nguyen; Lars S Maier; Harald Kögler; Gerd Hasenfuss (2008) European journal of heart failure : journal of the Working Group on Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology display abstract
In human hearts, the transition from cardiac hypertrophy to advanced heart failure (HF) is accompanied by a tremendous increase in Akt phosphorylation. In non-myocardial tissue, the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor celecoxib has been shown to COX-independently inhibit Akt signalling. We studied the effects of celecoxib on Akt signalling and hypertrophic response in myocardium. In rabbit isolated cardiac myocytes celecoxib concentration-dependently (10-100 micromol/L) inhibited the insulin-induced increase in phosphorylation of Akt and its downstream targets, GSK-3beta and p70 S6 kinase, by reducing the phosphorylation level of the upstream regulator PTEN. Inhibition of Akt signalling was accompanied by a significant suppression of characteristic features of cardiac hypertrophy: Celecoxib concentration-dependently suppressed the agonist-induced enhancement of total protein synthesis and BNP mRNA expression. In mice (C57BL/6NCrl) subjected to left ventricular (LV) pressure overload by aortic banding, celecoxib treatment (50mg x kg-1 x d-1) significantly attenuated LV dilation and contractile dysfunction compared with placebo-treated mice. Moreover, celecoxib significantly reduced mortality 8 weeks after banding. Thus, celecoxib can be used to titrate Akt signalling and hypertrophic response in myocardium. It reduces load-induced LV dilation, contractile dysfunction and mortality in vivo. This may have clinical implications for the prevention and treatment of maladaptive hypertrophy and its progression to HF in humans.