Caspase-8 mediates caspase-3 activation and cytochrome c release during singlet oxygen-induced apoptosis of HL-60 cells.. S Zhuang; M C Lynch; I E Kochevar (1999) Experimental cell research display abstract
We reported previously that singlet oxygen, generated by irradiation of rose bengal with visible light, induced apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. However, the mechanism of apoptosis caused by this reactive oxygen species is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that singlet oxygen induced caspase-3 activation and Z-DEVD-FMK, a caspase-3 inhibitor, blocked apoptosis induction, while caspase-1 activity was not detectable and the caspase-1 inhibitor Z-YVAD-FMK had a very limited effect on apoptosis. This suggests that the activation of caspase-3 by singlet oxygen is essential for the commitment of cells to undergo apoptosis. Further studies showed that singlet oxygen induced an increase in caspase-8 activity and a reduction in mitochondrial cytochrome c. Time course analysis indicated that the cleavage of caspase-8 precedes that of caspase-3. In addition, blockade of caspase-8 by Z-IETD-FMK inhibited cleavage of pro-caspase-3 and prevented loss of mitochondrial cytochrome c. These results suggest that caspase-8 mediates caspase-3 activation and cytochrome c release during singlet oxygen-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells.
Apoptotic signalling cascade in photosensitized human epidermal carcinoma A431 cells: involvement of singlet oxygen, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, caspase-3 and p21-activated kinase 2.. W H Chan; J S Yu; S D Yang (2000) The Biochemical journal display abstract
Photodynamic treatment (PDT) elicits diverse cellular responses and can also cause apoptosis. In the present study the cascade of signalling events involved in PDT-induced apoptosis was investigated using Rose Bengal (RB) as the photosensitizer, and human epidermal carcinoma A431 cells as the cell model. We show that a 36-kDa kinase detected by an in-gel kinase assay is markedly activated during PDT-triggered apoptosis. Immunoblot analysis revealed that this 36-kDa kinase represents the C-terminal catalytic fragment of p21-activated kinase (PAK)2. Generation of this active fragment of PAK2 is mediated by the caspase family of proteases, which are activated by PDT. The specific caspase inhibitors (acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-aldehyde and acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethylketone) block the PDT-induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent PAK2 cleavage/activation, indicating a major role for the caspase family proteases in PDT-induced apoptosis. Both PDT-induced caspase-3 activation and PAK2 cleavage/activation can be inhibited by the singlet oxygen scavengers, L-histidine and alpha-tocopherol, but not the hydroxyl radical scavenger, mannitol, demonstrating that singlet oxygen is an immediate early-apoptotic signal generated by PDT. In addition, PDT can induce a two-stage activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) in A431 cells; the early-stage JNK activation is singlet oxygen-dependent, whereas the late-stage JNK activation is mediated by the singlet oxygen-triggered caspase activation. Experiments using anti-sense oligonucleotides against JNK1 and PAK2 further show that during PDT-induced apoptosis the early-stage JNK activation is required for caspase activation, and that the late-stage JNK activation is regulated by the caspase-mediated cleavage/activation of PAK2. Collectively, a model for the PDT-triggered apoptotic signalling cascade with RB is proposed, which involves singlet oxygen, JNK, caspase-3 and PAK2, sequentially.