Transformer - Metabolism of Xenobiotics Database

Drug Transformation

In this picture drug transformation is illustrated schematically. Information about all of these transformations can be found in the Transformer database.
A prodrug, for example codeine, is activated by CYP2D6 (activating enzyme) via demethylation to morphine. Morphine is transported by multidrug resistance protein (MRP), which belongs to the ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC-transporters). Arrived in the cell, there are different possibilities of transformation. In our example morphine could be metabolized by CYP2C8, 2D6 and 3A4 (phase 1). In phase II morphine is metabolized primarily by UDP-glucuronosyl transferase-2B7 (UGT2B7) into morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide via glucuronidation.


Welcome to the open access database Transformer! It provides comprehensive information on the transformation and transport of xenobiotics in the human body. It contains the interactions of phase I and II enzymes and drug transporters with drugs, prodrugs, alimentary and Traditional Chinese Medicine compounds.
A particular highlight is the ability to detect mutual effects of several drugs. To this end, the cocktail tool displays interactions of drugs on the basis of their effect on the enzymes and transporters. Suggestions of alternative medications with appropriate indication, based on ATC-code, are provided. If you are using Transformer, please give us credit by linking to Transformer and citing the paper about Transformer. Drug cocktail optimization in chemotherapy of cancer.
Note: Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your doctor or pharmacist.

Please cite: Michael F. Hoffmann, Sarah C. Preissner, Janette Nickel, Mathias Dunkel, Robert Preissner and Saskia Preissner.
The Transformer database: biotransformation of xenobiotics.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2014 Jan 1;42(1):D1113-7. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkt1246. Epub 2013 Dec 10.

Cocktail Tool

Click here for a short tutorial. After choosing several drugs a result table opens. The chosen drugs are shown in the first line and the enzymes (transporter, phase 1 and phase 2 enzymes) which interact in the first column. If more than one drug interacts via the same enzyme, those lines are colored. To find the reference of these interactions click on the respective field of the table.
By clicking on the drug or the enzyme, it will lead to detailed information about their IDs, chemical structures, properties, 3D-structures and Network views. To receive an expedient alternative for a drug, the user needs to select the indication of the drug (based on the ATC-code) to find alternatives interactively.

Database statistics

phase I reactions4009
phase II reactions431
drug-transporter interactions1158
referencesmore than 105.000
food and herbal ingredients350

last updated: October 2016

For a more detailed statistic please click here.