In this picture drug transformation is illustrated schematically. Information about all of these transformations can be found in the Transformer database.
A prodrug, for example codeine, is activated by CYP2D6 (activating enzyme) via demethylation to morphine. Morphine is transported by multidrug resistance protein (MRP), which belongs to the ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC-transporters). Arrived in the cell, there are different possibilities of transformation. In our example morphine could be metabolized by CYP2C8, 2D6 and 3A4 (phase 1). In phase II morphine is metabolized primarily by UDP-glucuronosyl transferase-2B7 (UGT2B7) into morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide via glucuronidation.
Welcome to the open access database Transformer
! It provides comprehensive information on the transformation and transport of xenobiotics in the human body. It contains the interactions of phase I and II enzymes and drug transporters with drugs, prodrugs, alimentary and Traditional Chinese Medicine compounds.
A particular highlight is the ability to detect mutual effects of several drugs. To this end, the cocktail tool
displays interactions of drugs on the basis of their effect on the enzymes and transporters. Suggestions of alternative medications with appropriate indication, based on ATC-code, are provided. If you are using Transformer, please give us credit by linking to Transformer
and citing the paper about Transformer. Drug cocktail optimization in chemotherapy of cancer.
Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your doctor or pharmacist.
Michael F. Hoffmann, Sarah C. Preissner, Janette Nickel, Mathias Dunkel, Robert Preissner and Saskia Preissner.The Transformer database: biotransformation of xenobiotics.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2014 Jan 1;42(1):D1113-7. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkt1246. Epub 2013 Dec 10.