Here we present the mVOC 2.0 Database which is based on extensive literature search for microbial volatile organic compounds (mVOCs) and is an extension and improvement of the first mVOC database launched in 2014 (Lemfack et al. 2014). Bacteria and fungi, similar to plants and animals, emit small compounds and are an outstanding source of volatile organic compounds. Respective volatilomes are of structural complexity and diversity and possess the capability to influence neighboring organisms and communities as well as the hosts. For the first time an up-to-date data set is provided comprising the effects caused by discrete/individual mVOCs in plants, fungi, bacteria, invertebrates and vertebrates.
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Lemfack MC, Nickel J, Dunkel M, Preissner R, Piechulla B.
mVOC: a database of microbial volatiles.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2014 Jan 1;42(1):D744-8. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkt1250. Epub 2013 Dec 5.
Recent advances highlighted the incredible complexity of the microbial populations and communities in nature, e.g. there are more than 5 x 106 bacterial species in 1 g soil, or 107 bacterial cells per cm2 leaf area, the global microbiome comprises 1030 cells and 1018 bacterial species (Farre-Armengol et al. 2016, Penuelas and Terradas 2014, Stolz 2017). In the past decade it was documented that beside diffusible compounds, microorganisms are an exceptional source of volatile organic compounds, characterized by their high vapor pressure, low boiling point and a molecular mass of below 300Da.
It is commonplace that microorganisms, bacteria and fungi, are responsible for the production of aromas of foodstuff, e.g. cheese, wine, beer, yoghurt, which have been selected for human preferences. Attention was given to mVOCs that can be used as diagnostic tools in medicine, e.g. the mVOC methyl nicotinate is emitted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which infects the human lung and could be used as a clinical tool for detecting tuberculosis. Furthermore mVOCs of microorganisms growing on hardware, e.g. indoor walls, are also indicators for contaminations and pollutants with potential consequences for human health (Korpi et al. 2009). Beside diverse medical applications of mVOCs new approaches in agriculture and biotechnology are also envisioned (summarized in Piechulla and Lemfack 2016).